Saad Pervez
(Honours Bachelor of Science: Double Major in Neuroscience and Integrative Biology)
University of Toronto, Canada

Revised by:
Dr.A.Arrazaghi.MBBCH,FDABIM,FRCPC, Specialist of internal medicine and cardiovascular diseases, university of Toronto


Teenage Pregnancy in Canada
Trends in teenage pregnancy rates are of interest to educators, health care providers, researchers for a variety of reasons including the connection between socio-economic factors and the incidence of teenage pregnancy.In terms of teen pregnancy rates as indicators of teenager sexual and reproductive health, it is assumed that a majority of teenage pregnancies are unintended and that such trends therefore reflect the extent to which young women have the capacity to control their sexual and reproductive health. It is likely that declining trends in teen pregnancy rates may reflect increasing levels of effective contraceptive use, greater access to reproductive health services, exposure to higher quality sexual health education, and etc..



In 2007, the pregnancy rate in Ontario for women aged 15-19 was 25.7 per 1,000. Based on 36 public health units in Ontario, the highest rate was 60.8, and the lowest rate was 9.5 per 1,000 women aged 15-19.

Teen pregnancy rates have been on the decline in Canada in the last 25 years, with significant variation across provinces and territories. However, teen pregnancy has continued to be of significant concern in specific populations including socio-economically disadvantaged teens.


Risks

  • experiencing social and family difficulties
  • Whosemothers were adolescent mothers
  • Undergoing early puberty.
  • Who have been sexually abused
  • With frequent school absenteeism or lacking vocational goals.
  • With siblings who were pregnant during adolescence.
  • Who use tobacco, alcohol and other substances.
  • Who live in group homes, detention centres or are street-involved.







Complications The teen pregnancy rate indicator estimates the number of pregnancies (resulting in live births, stillbirths, and therapeutic abortions) per 1,000 females age 15 -19 years.

Teen pregnancy poses increased health risks to both the mother and the child, including the following:

Pregnant teens have a greater risk of developing health problems.
. Anaemia
. Hypertension
. Eclampsia
. Depressive disorders.

Children of teen mothers are more likely to have following:
. Low birth weights
. Preterm births
. Increased mortality
. Childhood morbidities(developmental problems)
. Learning difficulties
. Hearing and visual impairments
. Chronic respiratory problems

Pregnancy prevention
Health care practitioners have a significant role in preventing unplanned teenage pregnancies. While there are currently no standard restrictions to prevent pregnancy in teenagers, several reviews in the recent articles have summarized the characteristics of more effective programs (including longitudinal follow-up, contraceptive information, and life-skills training). Doctors should discuss decision-making with their teenage patients from a young age and apply this to the issues of sexuality, individual choice, peer pressure, safe sexand contraception in a manner appropriate to the teenager's development.
Teenager of both sexes who are engage in sexual activity should be counselled in methods of contraception. It is important to ask questions about intentionality for pregnancy because there is evidence to suggest that some adolescents may have the intention of becoming pregnant and, thus, require more than simply contraception counselling.